The first Abtenau church was in the second half of the 12. century by Archbishop Konrad III. built.
Um 1350 the settlement was pretty much complete. About 3000 people should have lived in Abtenau. There was no room for more with the economic conditions at the time. At that time there was already a “high ducal land and land court” that also administered the archbishop's property. St. Peter had set up a mother parish in his area. This laid the foundations for the capital Abtenau.
Abtenau developed into a rural, economic center in the Lammertal and became Elevated to market by Archbishop Leonhardt von Keutschach in 1507 and thus received the Market rights and civil liberties such as buying, selling, trade and business as well as the right to annually a fair on Maximiliantag to be allowed to hold. The farmers who lived in their individual farms were arranged in vineyards and rotten. The farmers but also the residents of the market were almost all under manors, of which St. Peter and the archbishop's court arbor were the predominant.
In the Peasant Wars of 1525/26 Abtenau only played a minor role. A separate courthouse was also built in this century. Most of the taxes paid to the manors consisted of “cheese, clarified butter and grain”. Toes went to the church.
Um 1600 was the first school in Abtenau on a private basis, founded by St. Peter with school fees and manorial sponsorship, and had its origin, as everywhere else, in reading the Holy Scriptures and - after the Council of Trent - the catechism.
1803 the spiritual principality of Salzburg was abolished.
1809 Abtenau was included in the acts of war of the Napoleonic Wars.
1816 the rest of the Salzburger Land, including Abtenau, came to Austria.
1848 were the Landlords dissolved (peasant liberation), the communities Abtenau and Annaberg emerged in the judicial district - a new era began. Even back then, there were several beer and wine bars among the businesses across the street from the church district. This division still exists today. On one side of the market square are the church, rectory and cemetery; There are five inns across the street.
Am 1 August 1850 became one in Abtenau Post expedition erected with driving mail.
After the Second World War initially began with the so-called Summer retreat the development of the Tourism; with the further development of the Alpine skiing Later the winter season also gained in importance.
Today Abtenau is with approx. 6000 inhabitants the largest town in the Lammertal (187 km²). It has retained its rustic and down-to-earth character and is therefore popular with holidaymakers.